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#February 2015
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Type III hiatal hernia: stepwise laparoscopic treatment
The surgical treatment of type III hiatal hernia has been thoroughly standardized in the following order: extrasaccular approach, reduction of the entire sac, and esophageal mobilization in order to restore the esophagogastric anatomy. Although it is recommended to combine this with a fundoplication as most authors do, there is still controversy concerning the closure technique of the diaphragmatic defect. Some experts recommend the reinforcement of this closure by means of a synthetic mesh. It is, however, a method which does not prevent recurrence and which can also bring about complications, which can at times be disastrous. As a result, we privilege reinforcement using an absorbable mesh.
B Dallemagne, S Perretta, S Tzedakis, D Mutter, J Marescaux
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
7576 views
274 likes
1 comment
16:21
Type III hiatal hernia: stepwise laparoscopic treatment
The surgical treatment of type III hiatal hernia has been thoroughly standardized in the following order: extrasaccular approach, reduction of the entire sac, and esophageal mobilization in order to restore the esophagogastric anatomy. Although it is recommended to combine this with a fundoplication as most authors do, there is still controversy concerning the closure technique of the diaphragmatic defect. Some experts recommend the reinforcement of this closure by means of a synthetic mesh. It is, however, a method which does not prevent recurrence and which can also bring about complications, which can at times be disastrous. As a result, we privilege reinforcement using an absorbable mesh.
Laparoscopic redo after failed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
This video shows a reintervention after laparoscopic bypass in a 44-year-old woman presenting with a history of dysphagia which began shortly after surgery.
First, a dissection between the inferior surface of the left hepatic lobe and the gastrojejunal anastomosis is performed. The gastrojejunal anastomosis is then dissected on its posterior side and a scarry and stenotic anastomosis becomes visible with a chronic fistula to the excluded stomach.
After resection of the “old” anastomosis, a new gastrojejunostomy is performed using the OrVil™ orogastric tube and the DST Series™ EEA™ 25mm circular stapling device.
P Vorwald, M Posada, D Cortés, S Ayora González, E Bernal, C Ferrero
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
885 views
21 likes
0 comments
14:04
Laparoscopic redo after failed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
This video shows a reintervention after laparoscopic bypass in a 44-year-old woman presenting with a history of dysphagia which began shortly after surgery.
First, a dissection between the inferior surface of the left hepatic lobe and the gastrojejunal anastomosis is performed. The gastrojejunal anastomosis is then dissected on its posterior side and a scarry and stenotic anastomosis becomes visible with a chronic fistula to the excluded stomach.
After resection of the “old” anastomosis, a new gastrojejunostomy is performed using the OrVil™ orogastric tube and the DST Series™ EEA™ 25mm circular stapling device.
Perforated gastric pouch ulcer 4 years after gastric bypass surgery: laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment
The frequency of marginal ulcers is reported to range between 0.6% and 16% after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Etiologies include gastrogastric fistula, excessively large gastric pouch containing antral mucosa, H pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, and smoking [1, 2]. We present a rare case of a gastric pouch ulcer perforation occurring 4 years after a laparoscopic gastric bypass.
Bibliographic references:
1. Perforated ulcer at the gastrojejunostomy: laparoscopic repair after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Bramkamp M, Muller MK, Wildi S, Clavien PA, Weber M. Obes Surg 2006;16:1545-7.
2. Multimedia article. Laparoscopic repair of a perforated marginal ulcer 2 years after gastric bypass. Chin EH, Hazzan D, Sarpel U, Herron DM. Surg Endosc 2007;21:2110.
D Ntourakis, M Vix, D Mutter, J Marescaux
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
1302 views
28 likes
0 comments
10:13
Perforated gastric pouch ulcer 4 years after gastric bypass surgery: laparoscopic diagnosis and treatment
The frequency of marginal ulcers is reported to range between 0.6% and 16% after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Etiologies include gastrogastric fistula, excessively large gastric pouch containing antral mucosa, H pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use, and smoking [1, 2]. We present a rare case of a gastric pouch ulcer perforation occurring 4 years after a laparoscopic gastric bypass.
Bibliographic references:
1. Perforated ulcer at the gastrojejunostomy: laparoscopic repair after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Bramkamp M, Muller MK, Wildi S, Clavien PA, Weber M. Obes Surg 2006;16:1545-7.
2. Multimedia article. Laparoscopic repair of a perforated marginal ulcer 2 years after gastric bypass. Chin EH, Hazzan D, Sarpel U, Herron DM. Surg Endosc 2007;21:2110.
Laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release
The video demonstrates the case of a laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release for a patient presenting with median arcuate ligament syndrome. This is a 37-year-old woman who was admitted to our clinic with complaints of intermittent abdominal pain, especially with meals, for 3 years’ duration. Her physical examination was unremarkable, except for an epigastric bruit detected on auscultation. Investigations included a duplex ultrasound, which showed increased hemodynamic velocities in the celiac trunk. In addition, CT-angiogram of the abdomen revealed an 80% luminal narrowing and extrinsic compression of the celiac artery at its origin. Her symptoms could be a result of foregut ischemia caused by the vessel’s narrowing. A potential anatomical factor contributing to extrinsic compression is the median arcuate ligament. This video explains our operative approach and technique used to dissect the esophagus at the hiatus, creating a subsequent pathway to identify the median arcuate ligament inferiorly and transect it down to the level of the celiac trunk’s origin. This will allow for relief of the external vascular compression and increased blood flow to the foregut and relief of her abdominal pain. Postoperatively, the patient had complete resolution of her abdominal symptoms.
N De La Cruz-Munoz, K Mohammad
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
1321 views
37 likes
0 comments
13:19
Laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release
The video demonstrates the case of a laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release for a patient presenting with median arcuate ligament syndrome. This is a 37-year-old woman who was admitted to our clinic with complaints of intermittent abdominal pain, especially with meals, for 3 years’ duration. Her physical examination was unremarkable, except for an epigastric bruit detected on auscultation. Investigations included a duplex ultrasound, which showed increased hemodynamic velocities in the celiac trunk. In addition, CT-angiogram of the abdomen revealed an 80% luminal narrowing and extrinsic compression of the celiac artery at its origin. Her symptoms could be a result of foregut ischemia caused by the vessel’s narrowing. A potential anatomical factor contributing to extrinsic compression is the median arcuate ligament. This video explains our operative approach and technique used to dissect the esophagus at the hiatus, creating a subsequent pathway to identify the median arcuate ligament inferiorly and transect it down to the level of the celiac trunk’s origin. This will allow for relief of the external vascular compression and increased blood flow to the foregut and relief of her abdominal pain. Postoperatively, the patient had complete resolution of her abdominal symptoms.
Chronic sigmoidovesical fistula: laparoscopic management
The most frequent underlying cause of sigmoidovesical fistula is complicated diverticular disease in 60% of cases followed by colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. It occurs in about 2 to 22% of patients with known diverticular disease. In diverticular sigmoid vesical chronic fistula, the preferred therapeutic management is represented by primary resection with anastomosis performed as a one-stage procedure. It is particularly true when the fistula is located between the vesical dome and the sigmoid colon distally from the trigone vesical. In this video, we demonstrate the laparoscopic management of a chronic sigmoidovesical fistula after acute sigmoid diverticulitis as a one-stage procedure.
J Leroy, A D'Urso, H Jeddou, D Mutter, J Marescaux
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
1947 views
60 likes
1 comment
07:01
Chronic sigmoidovesical fistula: laparoscopic management
The most frequent underlying cause of sigmoidovesical fistula is complicated diverticular disease in 60% of cases followed by colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. It occurs in about 2 to 22% of patients with known diverticular disease. In diverticular sigmoid vesical chronic fistula, the preferred therapeutic management is represented by primary resection with anastomosis performed as a one-stage procedure. It is particularly true when the fistula is located between the vesical dome and the sigmoid colon distally from the trigone vesical. In this video, we demonstrate the laparoscopic management of a chronic sigmoidovesical fistula after acute sigmoid diverticulitis as a one-stage procedure.
Robot-assisted thoracoscopic right superior lobectomy with conversion for controlled bleeding: a complex case
As the technique and the indications of robotic video-assisted lung resections have evolved, surgeons have had to face numerous pitfalls. One in particular is the vascular tear, which urge the operator to convert to thoracotomy. The decision as to when and how to convert to thoracotomy is always difficult to make. This video illustrates a complex case of robotic right upper lobectomy which required thoracotomy for controlled bleeding.
This is the case of a 47-year-old woman with a past medical history of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, active smoking, alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but no history of tuberculosis. She presented with a 3-month history of a right upper lobar mass detected on chest X-ray which evolved despite antibiotic treatment. Work-up including a PET-scan evoked a suspicion of malignancy.

While finishing the lobectomy, we had to face a difficult dissection of the posterior part of the oblique fissure with a tricky control of the dorsal artery. Trying to open the fissure with the endostapler, we tore the arterial branch and applied an immediate control by means of a double Cadiere grasper. When bleeding was finally controlled, we decided to convert for safety reasons. We proceeded without undocking the last robotic arm, clamping the artery until control was achieved using thoracotomy instruments. It allowed us to manage this situation with no rush and stress.
There are two types of bleeding: controlled and uncontrolled. In our experience of RATS lobectomy and by reviewing our complications, we feel that there are several advantages to this technique: first, small instruments make small injuries which can be controlled by robotic instrument. Secondly, passive locking of the robotic arm provides sufficient time for the surgical team to prepare conversion.
JM Baste, N Bayard, C Peillon
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
948 views
35 likes
0 comments
08:59
Robot-assisted thoracoscopic right superior lobectomy with conversion for controlled bleeding: a complex case
As the technique and the indications of robotic video-assisted lung resections have evolved, surgeons have had to face numerous pitfalls. One in particular is the vascular tear, which urge the operator to convert to thoracotomy. The decision as to when and how to convert to thoracotomy is always difficult to make. This video illustrates a complex case of robotic right upper lobectomy which required thoracotomy for controlled bleeding.
This is the case of a 47-year-old woman with a past medical history of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, active smoking, alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but no history of tuberculosis. She presented with a 3-month history of a right upper lobar mass detected on chest X-ray which evolved despite antibiotic treatment. Work-up including a PET-scan evoked a suspicion of malignancy.

While finishing the lobectomy, we had to face a difficult dissection of the posterior part of the oblique fissure with a tricky control of the dorsal artery. Trying to open the fissure with the endostapler, we tore the arterial branch and applied an immediate control by means of a double Cadiere grasper. When bleeding was finally controlled, we decided to convert for safety reasons. We proceeded without undocking the last robotic arm, clamping the artery until control was achieved using thoracotomy instruments. It allowed us to manage this situation with no rush and stress.
There are two types of bleeding: controlled and uncontrolled. In our experience of RATS lobectomy and by reviewing our complications, we feel that there are several advantages to this technique: first, small instruments make small injuries which can be controlled by robotic instrument. Secondly, passive locking of the robotic arm provides sufficient time for the surgical team to prepare conversion.
Safety in complex VATS lobectomy: how to secure your procedure
Objective
As surgical teams performing video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy procedures improve in technicality, surgeons have to face more complex cases which could not be handled without an open thoracotomy before. Consequently, unexpected events occur and safety measures must be implemented in order to prevent whatever could be prevented. Clinical videos have become a very powerful tool that allow surgeons from the world over to share their experience on the matter.

Methods
In this video, routine safety procedures used in our center are illustrated. The case presented is that of a 52-year-old woman with a clinical stage IIIA (T3N1M0) mass at the left upper lobe. CT-scan showed a close relationship between the tumor and the first upper lobar branch. In many centers, this would often contraindicate a minimally invasive approach.

Results
A preoperative assessment is crucial in order to anticipate the anatomy of the area. CT-scan reconstruction is of great importance whenever the surgeon requires it. The procedure is begun with an extended safety checklist including the availability of conversion instruments and a second suction line as major ‘’go/no go’’ factors. The anterior approach of the hilum allows for a control of both arterial and venous structures using vessel loops.

Conclusions
Our technique allows to routinely perform safe and reproducible complex cases of VATS lobectomy.
JM Baste, N Bayard, R Levy, C Peillon
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
1057 views
23 likes
0 comments
10:27
Safety in complex VATS lobectomy: how to secure your procedure
Objective
As surgical teams performing video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy procedures improve in technicality, surgeons have to face more complex cases which could not be handled without an open thoracotomy before. Consequently, unexpected events occur and safety measures must be implemented in order to prevent whatever could be prevented. Clinical videos have become a very powerful tool that allow surgeons from the world over to share their experience on the matter.

Methods
In this video, routine safety procedures used in our center are illustrated. The case presented is that of a 52-year-old woman with a clinical stage IIIA (T3N1M0) mass at the left upper lobe. CT-scan showed a close relationship between the tumor and the first upper lobar branch. In many centers, this would often contraindicate a minimally invasive approach.

Results
A preoperative assessment is crucial in order to anticipate the anatomy of the area. CT-scan reconstruction is of great importance whenever the surgeon requires it. The procedure is begun with an extended safety checklist including the availability of conversion instruments and a second suction line as major ‘’go/no go’’ factors. The anterior approach of the hilum allows for a control of both arterial and venous structures using vessel loops.

Conclusions
Our technique allows to routinely perform safe and reproducible complex cases of VATS lobectomy.
Laparoscopic treatment of bilateral endometriotic cysts
The different surgical approaches to ovarian endometriosis are the following: ovarian cystectomy, endometrioma fenestration and removal, or a technique combining cystectomy and removal.
In order to perform a cystectomy without damaging the ovary, different steps must be followed, including adhesiolysis between the ovary and the broad ligament, cyst opening at the site of eversion and adhesion. Traction and counter-traction allow to separate the cyst’s wall from the ovarian cortex. As the endometrioma is surrounded by a fibrotic capsule, there is a risk of removing normal ovarian tissue and ovocytes. Blood vessels must be identified and selective coagulation must be performed to prevent destruction of the normal ovarian tissue.
Endometrioma fenestration and removal can be performed with different sources of energy such as bipolar coagulation, carbon dioxide laser and plasma energy. Depending on the size of the endometrioma, the removal technique can be performed in one or three steps. But to avoid 2 laparoscopic procedures, a combined technique of excision and removal of the endometrioma could be offered in cases of large cysts.
Medical treatment is administered preoperatively only in cases of pelvic pain and postoperatively in cases of pelvic pain and if there is no desire for pregnancy.
According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, the ovarian reserve, evaluated by the AMH level, is affected by surgery, and even more in cases of bilateral cysts.

To conclude, ovarian endometrioma surgery requires a learning curve to prevent ovarian damage, which can be caused by normal ovarian tissue removal or by a strong coagulation. Repetitive surgery has to be clearly evaluated as it is also responsible for ovarian reserve decrease.
M Nisolle
Lecture
3 years ago
2277 views
93 likes
0 comments
19:00
Laparoscopic treatment of bilateral endometriotic cysts
The different surgical approaches to ovarian endometriosis are the following: ovarian cystectomy, endometrioma fenestration and removal, or a technique combining cystectomy and removal.
In order to perform a cystectomy without damaging the ovary, different steps must be followed, including adhesiolysis between the ovary and the broad ligament, cyst opening at the site of eversion and adhesion. Traction and counter-traction allow to separate the cyst’s wall from the ovarian cortex. As the endometrioma is surrounded by a fibrotic capsule, there is a risk of removing normal ovarian tissue and ovocytes. Blood vessels must be identified and selective coagulation must be performed to prevent destruction of the normal ovarian tissue.
Endometrioma fenestration and removal can be performed with different sources of energy such as bipolar coagulation, carbon dioxide laser and plasma energy. Depending on the size of the endometrioma, the removal technique can be performed in one or three steps. But to avoid 2 laparoscopic procedures, a combined technique of excision and removal of the endometrioma could be offered in cases of large cysts.
Medical treatment is administered preoperatively only in cases of pelvic pain and postoperatively in cases of pelvic pain and if there is no desire for pregnancy.
According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis, the ovarian reserve, evaluated by the AMH level, is affected by surgery, and even more in cases of bilateral cysts.

To conclude, ovarian endometrioma surgery requires a learning curve to prevent ovarian damage, which can be caused by normal ovarian tissue removal or by a strong coagulation. Repetitive surgery has to be clearly evaluated as it is also responsible for ovarian reserve decrease.
DIE and laparoscopic treatment
Hormone therapy was designed to suppress estrogen synthesis and to reduce the size of ectopic endometrial implants. However, the recurrence of pain after cessation is estimated at 50% and indicates that surgery is required for symptomatic patients.
Conservative surgery is effective in terms of pain reduction if complete excision is obtained, and consequently a preoperative assessment is mandatory to put forward a multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers.
In cases of excision of the nodular lesion by means of mucosal skinning, the resection of uterosacral ligaments and of the posterior vaginal fornix is usually recommended. A comparison between standard and reverse laparoscopic techniques demonstrated a statistically significant lower rate of major postoperative complications by using the reverse technique.
Bowel endometriosis requires bowel resection if the size is estimated to exceed 3cm, to affect 50% of the bowel's diameter or to induce a stenosis. Different techniques could be proposed such as a segmental bowel resection, a discoid resection or a stapled resection.
Concerning the rate of complications, it has been published that mucosal skinning is associated with fewer complications than segmental resection.
Recently, robotic assisted laparoscopy was used for the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis; however, it is associated with an increased operative time and a longer hospital stay.

To conclude, a skilled surgical team is necessary to perform the complete removal of lesions without increasing the risk of complications and to obtain good results in terms of pelvic pain and fertility.
M Nisolle
Lecture
3 years ago
1713 views
76 likes
0 comments
23:49
DIE and laparoscopic treatment
Hormone therapy was designed to suppress estrogen synthesis and to reduce the size of ectopic endometrial implants. However, the recurrence of pain after cessation is estimated at 50% and indicates that surgery is required for symptomatic patients.
Conservative surgery is effective in terms of pain reduction if complete excision is obtained, and consequently a preoperative assessment is mandatory to put forward a multidisciplinary approach in specialized centers.
In cases of excision of the nodular lesion by means of mucosal skinning, the resection of uterosacral ligaments and of the posterior vaginal fornix is usually recommended. A comparison between standard and reverse laparoscopic techniques demonstrated a statistically significant lower rate of major postoperative complications by using the reverse technique.
Bowel endometriosis requires bowel resection if the size is estimated to exceed 3cm, to affect 50% of the bowel's diameter or to induce a stenosis. Different techniques could be proposed such as a segmental bowel resection, a discoid resection or a stapled resection.
Concerning the rate of complications, it has been published that mucosal skinning is associated with fewer complications than segmental resection.
Recently, robotic assisted laparoscopy was used for the treatment of advanced stage endometriosis; however, it is associated with an increased operative time and a longer hospital stay.

To conclude, a skilled surgical team is necessary to perform the complete removal of lesions without increasing the risk of complications and to obtain good results in terms of pelvic pain and fertility.
Modern hysteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment (office hysteroscopy)
Modern technology has brought diagnostic hysteroscopy as a mainstay of modern gynecologic practice. The ambulatory visualization of the uterine cavity has obvious major benefits for the patient and the diagnostic algorithms. However, it has not been generally implemented by the physicians for obvious drawbacks – it is painful, difficult to get good visualization, difficult to organize and to provide significant tissue for histology.
The new TROPHY hysteroscope is especially designed to counteract the abovementioned drawbacks providing physicians most innovative possibilities resulting in an all in one diagnostic procedure and the highest patient comfort. The most specific feature of this hysteroscope is that it can be loaded with accessory sheaths in an active and passive position providing the possibility of enlarging the visual procedure with endometrial sampling or surgical actions for pathological examination of the endometrium and myometrium without removing the instrument. Additionally, one can remove the hysteroscope and use the accessory sheet to introduce the Trophy D&C suction curette or the Endo-myometrial sampler. Histology from endometrium and myometrium is possible without the need of a speculum and even minor interventions such as polyp or myoma resection are possible in a one-stop procedure.
Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) has demonstrated that the uterus can be separated in 3 important functional areas. For this reason, exploration of the uterus in the infertile patient should implement the evaluation of the endometrium, the junctional zone myometrium (JZ), and the outer myometrium.
MRI cannot be implemented as a screening examination but the combination of transvaginal ultrasound and office hysteroscopy provides a complete one-stop diagnostic and eventually therapeutic procedure.
In this way, myometrial disorders, uterine congenital malformations, endometrium pathologies, and the cervical canal pathway can be evaluated easily.
This lecture describes a modern ambulatory one-stop approach, by combining ultrasound, hysteroscopy and endomyometrial tissue sampling for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This one-stop approach opens a totally new and advanced dimension to the screening, diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathologies in the infertile patient.
R Campo
Lecture
3 years ago
1969 views
81 likes
0 comments
24:50
Modern hysteroscopy for diagnosis and treatment (office hysteroscopy)
Modern technology has brought diagnostic hysteroscopy as a mainstay of modern gynecologic practice. The ambulatory visualization of the uterine cavity has obvious major benefits for the patient and the diagnostic algorithms. However, it has not been generally implemented by the physicians for obvious drawbacks – it is painful, difficult to get good visualization, difficult to organize and to provide significant tissue for histology.
The new TROPHY hysteroscope is especially designed to counteract the abovementioned drawbacks providing physicians most innovative possibilities resulting in an all in one diagnostic procedure and the highest patient comfort. The most specific feature of this hysteroscope is that it can be loaded with accessory sheaths in an active and passive position providing the possibility of enlarging the visual procedure with endometrial sampling or surgical actions for pathological examination of the endometrium and myometrium without removing the instrument. Additionally, one can remove the hysteroscope and use the accessory sheet to introduce the Trophy D&C suction curette or the Endo-myometrial sampler. Histology from endometrium and myometrium is possible without the need of a speculum and even minor interventions such as polyp or myoma resection are possible in a one-stop procedure.
Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) has demonstrated that the uterus can be separated in 3 important functional areas. For this reason, exploration of the uterus in the infertile patient should implement the evaluation of the endometrium, the junctional zone myometrium (JZ), and the outer myometrium.
MRI cannot be implemented as a screening examination but the combination of transvaginal ultrasound and office hysteroscopy provides a complete one-stop diagnostic and eventually therapeutic procedure.
In this way, myometrial disorders, uterine congenital malformations, endometrium pathologies, and the cervical canal pathway can be evaluated easily.
This lecture describes a modern ambulatory one-stop approach, by combining ultrasound, hysteroscopy and endomyometrial tissue sampling for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This one-stop approach opens a totally new and advanced dimension to the screening, diagnosis and treatment of uterine pathologies in the infertile patient.
Prevention and treatment of intrauterine adhesions
The severe form of intrauterine adhesions (IUA) is probably the most difficult pathology to be treated by hysteroscopic surgery. The use of small diameter resectoscopes facilitates faster operations and less endometrial trauma, and is expected to be more efficient for the treatment of IUA. The concomitant use of ultrasound helps the surgeon to identify the ostia and prevents him from perforating the myometrium. The main effort is to identify the endometrial and sub-endometrial cleavage plane without injuring the myometrium. Longer periods of amenorrhea, older aged patients, and repeated surgery attempts to clear adhesions reduce chances of achieving pregnancy. Postoperative Hyalobarrier® anti-adhesive agents reduce the risk of adhesion reformation but do not increase pregnancy rates.
V Tanos
Lecture
3 years ago
1074 views
39 likes
0 comments
12:40
Prevention and treatment of intrauterine adhesions
The severe form of intrauterine adhesions (IUA) is probably the most difficult pathology to be treated by hysteroscopic surgery. The use of small diameter resectoscopes facilitates faster operations and less endometrial trauma, and is expected to be more efficient for the treatment of IUA. The concomitant use of ultrasound helps the surgeon to identify the ostia and prevents him from perforating the myometrium. The main effort is to identify the endometrial and sub-endometrial cleavage plane without injuring the myometrium. Longer periods of amenorrhea, older aged patients, and repeated surgery attempts to clear adhesions reduce chances of achieving pregnancy. Postoperative Hyalobarrier® anti-adhesive agents reduce the risk of adhesion reformation but do not increase pregnancy rates.
Complications in operative hysteroscopy
Most hysteroscopic surgery complications can be prevented. Education and good training are definitely the most important factors for both novice and experienced surgeons to reduce complications risks. The most frequent complications in hysteroscopic surgery are uterine wall perforation (during dilatation, or during surgery) and uterine or cervical bleeding. Fluid overload can be reduced with the use of a bipolar resectoscope, normal saline being the distending medium. Air embolism is a life-threatening condition and all surgeons should be aware and ready for the adequate treatment. Complications related to anesthesia and especially to patients with concomitant pathologies can also be minimized using office hysteroscopic surgery procedures.
V Tanos
Lecture
3 years ago
1438 views
61 likes
0 comments
17:38
Complications in operative hysteroscopy
Most hysteroscopic surgery complications can be prevented. Education and good training are definitely the most important factors for both novice and experienced surgeons to reduce complications risks. The most frequent complications in hysteroscopic surgery are uterine wall perforation (during dilatation, or during surgery) and uterine or cervical bleeding. Fluid overload can be reduced with the use of a bipolar resectoscope, normal saline being the distending medium. Air embolism is a life-threatening condition and all surgeons should be aware and ready for the adequate treatment. Complications related to anesthesia and especially to patients with concomitant pathologies can also be minimized using office hysteroscopic surgery procedures.
Hysteroscopic myomectomy and ART
Fibroids represent an extremely common benign uterine pathology, the incidence of which increases with age, and approximately 10% of women with infertility problems will present a myoma. The association between uterine myoma and infertility is still controversial. Evidence exists that subserosal myomas do not impair the pregnancy rate in IVF whereas submucous myomas significantly decrease the implantation rate. Unfortunately, the effect of intramural myomas upon reproduction outcomes remains unknown, and until now no adequate diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines have been established.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging has redefined the functional anatomy of the uterus. Contrarily to ultrasound, MRI demonstrates that the non-pregnant myometrium is not a homogeneous smooth muscle mass but consists of two different structural and functional entities. The myometrium adjacent to the endometrium is a different hormone-dependent uterine compartment called junctional zone (JZ) myometrium. It is a functionally important entity in reproduction and it is ontogenetically related to the endometrium. Submucosal fibroids originate from this JZ myometrium and differ from subserosal fibroids as they have less cytogenetic abnormalities, less expression of Sex Steroid Hormone receptors, and they are more responsive to GnRH analog treatment and provide fewer recurrences after surgery.
Despite the lack of randomized studies, the sharp decline in pregnancy rates in case of submucous myoma is quite convincing and it is based on the existing evidence that myomectomy should be performed prior to ART for junctional zone myomas which protrude into the uterine cavity.
We demonstrate the different modern techniques of hysteroscopic myomectomy, the new instrumentation, the tips and tricks, the possible complications and clinical outcome.
R Campo
Lecture
3 years ago
1936 views
98 likes
0 comments
27:15
Hysteroscopic myomectomy and ART
Fibroids represent an extremely common benign uterine pathology, the incidence of which increases with age, and approximately 10% of women with infertility problems will present a myoma. The association between uterine myoma and infertility is still controversial. Evidence exists that subserosal myomas do not impair the pregnancy rate in IVF whereas submucous myomas significantly decrease the implantation rate. Unfortunately, the effect of intramural myomas upon reproduction outcomes remains unknown, and until now no adequate diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines have been established.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging has redefined the functional anatomy of the uterus. Contrarily to ultrasound, MRI demonstrates that the non-pregnant myometrium is not a homogeneous smooth muscle mass but consists of two different structural and functional entities. The myometrium adjacent to the endometrium is a different hormone-dependent uterine compartment called junctional zone (JZ) myometrium. It is a functionally important entity in reproduction and it is ontogenetically related to the endometrium. Submucosal fibroids originate from this JZ myometrium and differ from subserosal fibroids as they have less cytogenetic abnormalities, less expression of Sex Steroid Hormone receptors, and they are more responsive to GnRH analog treatment and provide fewer recurrences after surgery.
Despite the lack of randomized studies, the sharp decline in pregnancy rates in case of submucous myoma is quite convincing and it is based on the existing evidence that myomectomy should be performed prior to ART for junctional zone myomas which protrude into the uterine cavity.
We demonstrate the different modern techniques of hysteroscopic myomectomy, the new instrumentation, the tips and tricks, the possible complications and clinical outcome.
Laparoscopic myomectomy in infertile women
The incidence of fibroids in women of reproductive age is reported to be between 20 and 40% (Verkauf, 1992; American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2001). Their presence could cause failure to conceive, but no scientific evidence supports improvement after the surgical removal of the fibroid. This was recently highlighted in a review (Donnez and Jadoul, 2002) reporting a pregnancy rate after myomectomy in infertile women varying between 10 and 80%. Reported results in the literature are confusing due to the heterogeneity of the included patients and the different final outcomes. While subserosal and submucosal leiomyomas are likely to originate respectively from the outer myometrium and junctional zone myometrium, intramural fibroids may originate from the outer myometrium as well as from the junctional zone of the myometrium. It is agreed, although not proven, that patients with submucosal and intramural myomas have an impaired reproductive performance. Removal of submucosal myoma will result in a better reproductive performance, which is not obvious after removal of intramural myoma.
Laparoscopic removal has the benefit to have a lower morbidity and a lower risk for postoperative adhesion formation. Benefits and techniques will be discussed.
S Gordts
Lecture
3 years ago
2519 views
114 likes
0 comments
28:01
Laparoscopic myomectomy in infertile women
The incidence of fibroids in women of reproductive age is reported to be between 20 and 40% (Verkauf, 1992; American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2001). Their presence could cause failure to conceive, but no scientific evidence supports improvement after the surgical removal of the fibroid. This was recently highlighted in a review (Donnez and Jadoul, 2002) reporting a pregnancy rate after myomectomy in infertile women varying between 10 and 80%. Reported results in the literature are confusing due to the heterogeneity of the included patients and the different final outcomes. While subserosal and submucosal leiomyomas are likely to originate respectively from the outer myometrium and junctional zone myometrium, intramural fibroids may originate from the outer myometrium as well as from the junctional zone of the myometrium. It is agreed, although not proven, that patients with submucosal and intramural myomas have an impaired reproductive performance. Removal of submucosal myoma will result in a better reproductive performance, which is not obvious after removal of intramural myoma.
Laparoscopic removal has the benefit to have a lower morbidity and a lower risk for postoperative adhesion formation. Benefits and techniques will be discussed.
Principles of tubal surgery
This presentation focuses on the specific advantages of tubal surgery as compared to assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
Tubal surgery is a valid option in selected cases.
This selection is only possible through endoscopy and a precise knowledge of lesions is necessary. Three kinds of lesions have to be precisely known: pelvic adhesions and tubal lesions, either distal or proximal.
Nowadays, a special focus has to be made on subtle tubal lesions which were underestimated until recently.
Diagnosis and patient selection is a key factor and it is best achieved through transvaginal endoscopy such as fertiloscopy.
Even if today laparoscopy is the gold standard to treat tubal abnormalities, the principles of microsurgery which were defined a long time ago have to be strictly applied if one wants to get a pregnancy rate equivalent or superior to what is expected with in vitro fertilization (IVF).
A Watrelot
Lecture
3 years ago
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16:07
Principles of tubal surgery
This presentation focuses on the specific advantages of tubal surgery as compared to assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
Tubal surgery is a valid option in selected cases.
This selection is only possible through endoscopy and a precise knowledge of lesions is necessary. Three kinds of lesions have to be precisely known: pelvic adhesions and tubal lesions, either distal or proximal.
Nowadays, a special focus has to be made on subtle tubal lesions which were underestimated until recently.
Diagnosis and patient selection is a key factor and it is best achieved through transvaginal endoscopy such as fertiloscopy.
Even if today laparoscopy is the gold standard to treat tubal abnormalities, the principles of microsurgery which were defined a long time ago have to be strictly applied if one wants to get a pregnancy rate equivalent or superior to what is expected with in vitro fertilization (IVF).
The indications of transvaginal endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of infertility
Standard laparoscopy is frequently postponed and omitted in the exploration of the infertile patient. It is a rather invasive and not innocuous procedure. However, direct endoscopic visualization of the pelvis and the uterine cavity is still considered the gold standard and it is preferred over indirect imaging techniques.
The transvaginal single access approach offers the opportunity to explore the uterus and tubo-ovarian organs in an ambulatory “one-stop fertility” clinical setting. Only direct visualization of the pelvis allows for an accurate diagnosis of minimal endometriosis, tubo-ovarian adhesions, sequellae of PID. When indicated, the procedure was completed with a patency test, salpingoscopy and hysteroscopy. In patients without obvious pelvic pathology, transvafinal endoscopy (TVE) can be used as a first-line diagnostic procedure without postponing an early diagnosis and accurate therapy.
Because of the easy access to the fossa ovarica, the preferred implantation site of endometriosis, limited surgical procedures such as adhesiolysis become possible, the same goes for the treatment of ovarian endometrioma, and ovarian drilling. It allows for an accurate and meticulous dissection of peri-ovarian adhesions and hydroflotation is very helpful in the identification of the exact cleavage plane between the different organs. Small scissors, forceps, and a bipolar coagulation probe are used. A meticulous hemostasis is mandatory, as bleeding will disturb visualization in a watery medium. In case of endometriosis, after the endometrioma has been opened, the chocolate fluid is removed and the inner site of the cyst is superfluously rinsed. The bipolar probe is used to fulgurate the inner endometrial layering.
To drill the ovarian capsule, we use a 5 French bipolar needle (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). On each ovary, 5 to 10 punctures were created preferentially at the antero-lateral side of the ovary. The 5 French bipolar needle is gently pushed against the ovarian surface and current is activated with an energy output of 70 Watts. The procedure was carried out in the ambulatory patient in a one-day clinical setting.
S Gordts
Lecture
3 years ago
970 views
31 likes
0 comments
30:53
The indications of transvaginal endoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of infertility
Standard laparoscopy is frequently postponed and omitted in the exploration of the infertile patient. It is a rather invasive and not innocuous procedure. However, direct endoscopic visualization of the pelvis and the uterine cavity is still considered the gold standard and it is preferred over indirect imaging techniques.
The transvaginal single access approach offers the opportunity to explore the uterus and tubo-ovarian organs in an ambulatory “one-stop fertility” clinical setting. Only direct visualization of the pelvis allows for an accurate diagnosis of minimal endometriosis, tubo-ovarian adhesions, sequellae of PID. When indicated, the procedure was completed with a patency test, salpingoscopy and hysteroscopy. In patients without obvious pelvic pathology, transvafinal endoscopy (TVE) can be used as a first-line diagnostic procedure without postponing an early diagnosis and accurate therapy.
Because of the easy access to the fossa ovarica, the preferred implantation site of endometriosis, limited surgical procedures such as adhesiolysis become possible, the same goes for the treatment of ovarian endometrioma, and ovarian drilling. It allows for an accurate and meticulous dissection of peri-ovarian adhesions and hydroflotation is very helpful in the identification of the exact cleavage plane between the different organs. Small scissors, forceps, and a bipolar coagulation probe are used. A meticulous hemostasis is mandatory, as bleeding will disturb visualization in a watery medium. In case of endometriosis, after the endometrioma has been opened, the chocolate fluid is removed and the inner site of the cyst is superfluously rinsed. The bipolar probe is used to fulgurate the inner endometrial layering.
To drill the ovarian capsule, we use a 5 French bipolar needle (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). On each ovary, 5 to 10 punctures were created preferentially at the antero-lateral side of the ovary. The 5 French bipolar needle is gently pushed against the ovarian surface and current is activated with an energy output of 70 Watts. The procedure was carried out in the ambulatory patient in a one-day clinical setting.