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Gastric GIST: minimally invasive surgical modalities
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor, and the stomach is the most frequent location (50-60%). Gastric GIST presents as a submucosal tumor and is often found incidentally. Submucosal tumors greater than 2cm are indicated for resection. Indication for laparoscopic surgery is not strictly determined by the size, but whether surgery can follow resection principles, 1) R0 resection with histologically negative margins, 2) all efforts are made to prevent tumor rupture. Wedge resection using a linear stapler, also called “exogastric resection” is effective in most cases. However, the operator should pay attention to align the direction of the linear stapler “transversely” to the long axis of the stomach, otherwise it can cause gastric lumen narrowing after resection, especially in case of a relatively large tumor with endophytical growth. Endoscopy is very useful to identify and define tumor resection margins for endophytic tumor, and the “eversion” technique is one option to reduce the amount of normal mucosa resection. GIST cases located at the posterior wall of the upper stomach are technically challenging, and transgastric or intragastric techniques are suggested as good surgical options for such tumors. Laparoscopic or endoscopic “coring out” techniques can be dangerous, because of the high risk of tumor rupture and gastric wall perforation, which can cause peritoneal seeding when both take place simultaneously.
SH Kong
Lecture
3 years ago
2058 views
119 likes
0 comments
22:10
Gastric GIST: minimally invasive surgical modalities
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor, and the stomach is the most frequent location (50-60%). Gastric GIST presents as a submucosal tumor and is often found incidentally. Submucosal tumors greater than 2cm are indicated for resection. Indication for laparoscopic surgery is not strictly determined by the size, but whether surgery can follow resection principles, 1) R0 resection with histologically negative margins, 2) all efforts are made to prevent tumor rupture. Wedge resection using a linear stapler, also called “exogastric resection” is effective in most cases. However, the operator should pay attention to align the direction of the linear stapler “transversely” to the long axis of the stomach, otherwise it can cause gastric lumen narrowing after resection, especially in case of a relatively large tumor with endophytical growth. Endoscopy is very useful to identify and define tumor resection margins for endophytic tumor, and the “eversion” technique is one option to reduce the amount of normal mucosa resection. GIST cases located at the posterior wall of the upper stomach are technically challenging, and transgastric or intragastric techniques are suggested as good surgical options for such tumors. Laparoscopic or endoscopic “coring out” techniques can be dangerous, because of the high risk of tumor rupture and gastric wall perforation, which can cause peritoneal seeding when both take place simultaneously.
Pure NOTES: Transvaginal tubal sterilization with flexible endoscope
Tubal sterilization is a permanent method of contraception, performed using several current approaches, including laparotomy, mini-laparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Two new approaches, LESS and transgastric or transvaginal NOTES, are being used today. This video shows our surgical technique for pure NOTES transvaginal sterilization. Tubal sterilization is a permanent method of contraception, performed using several current approaches, including laparotomy, mini-laparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Two new approaches, LESS and transgastric or transvaginal NOTES, are being used today. This video shows our surgical technique for pure NOTES transvaginal sterilization. The patient is 32 years old with a history of one previous vaginal delivery and one previous cesarean delivery. Her BMI is 20. The procedure was fully explained to the patient and written consent was obtained.
J Mejías, H Almau, P Rosales, R de la Fuente, N García, C Bravo
Surgical intervention
8 years ago
442 views
13 likes
0 comments
07:05
Pure NOTES: Transvaginal tubal sterilization with flexible endoscope
Tubal sterilization is a permanent method of contraception, performed using several current approaches, including laparotomy, mini-laparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Two new approaches, LESS and transgastric or transvaginal NOTES, are being used today. This video shows our surgical technique for pure NOTES transvaginal sterilization. Tubal sterilization is a permanent method of contraception, performed using several current approaches, including laparotomy, mini-laparotomy, colpotomy, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. Two new approaches, LESS and transgastric or transvaginal NOTES, are being used today. This video shows our surgical technique for pure NOTES transvaginal sterilization. The patient is 32 years old with a history of one previous vaginal delivery and one previous cesarean delivery. Her BMI is 20. The procedure was fully explained to the patient and written consent was obtained.
MRI lymphography for esophageal sentinel node mapping: evolution of a NOTES technique
Introduction: Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) may render conventionally inaccessible anatomic sites accessible in a truly minimally invasive means. Having developed expertise in esophageal mural tunneling for the purposes of endoscopic Heller’s myotomy, we now cautiously explore the feasibility of a transesophageal technique for sentinel node mapping based on MRI lymphography.
Methods: two non-survival porcine models were used to demonstrate how targeted mediastinal lymph node biopsy could be performed transesophageally by a combination of endoscopic submucosal lymphatic mapping, MRI imaging and NOTES.
First, lymphatic mapping of the area of interest is performed by injecting 2mls of methylene blue submucosally using a standard gastroscope inserted into the distal esophagus. This suspension of small molecular size dye particles is rapidly taken up by the submucosal lymphatic efferents and transported to the first echelon draining lymph nodes which are then detectable by their blue discoloration.
After a few minutes, the endoscope is withdrawn proximally to this injection site and a mucosal incision made 15cm from the EGJ to allow creation of a submucosal tunnel using a biliary soft tipped dilatation balloon. This along with the pressure of endoscopic CO2 insufflation allows a space to be formed within the esophageal wall. A second staggered incision then allows exit of the endoscope into the mediastinum proper. Once in this anatomic space, a careful search is performed for blue discolored lymph nodes whereupon standard endoscopic dissection instruments allows selective lymphadenectomy to be performed and the salient nodes withdrawn to the exterior via to esophagotomy. The small diameter of the scope allows for easy retroflection providing good visualization even of the proximal esophagus. The last step is mucosal clip closure to reinforce the mucosal flap seal. The retrieved nodes were MRI scanned to confirm the presence of gadolinium in the dyed nodes.
In the second animal the mapping was performed as described above but instead of retrieving only the sentinel nodes an en bloc esophagogastrectomy was performed to assess the sentinel nodes basin distribution at MRI.
Results: The operative technique proved readily feasible in all its aspects with blue sentinel nodes being found around the distal esophagus. The gadolinium combined with methylene blue was found in the first draining nodes in both animals.
Conclusions: MRI imaging may provide a new tool for sentinel node basin identification, and if proved sufficiently reliable, may represent a step further towards a solely endoscopic diagnosis and resection of the primary tumor.
S Perretta, M Diana, B Dallemagne, R Cahill, J Marescaux
Surgical intervention
8 years ago
126 views
3 likes
0 comments
02:28
MRI lymphography for esophageal sentinel node mapping: evolution of a NOTES technique
Introduction: Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) may render conventionally inaccessible anatomic sites accessible in a truly minimally invasive means. Having developed expertise in esophageal mural tunneling for the purposes of endoscopic Heller’s myotomy, we now cautiously explore the feasibility of a transesophageal technique for sentinel node mapping based on MRI lymphography.
Methods: two non-survival porcine models were used to demonstrate how targeted mediastinal lymph node biopsy could be performed transesophageally by a combination of endoscopic submucosal lymphatic mapping, MRI imaging and NOTES.
First, lymphatic mapping of the area of interest is performed by injecting 2mls of methylene blue submucosally using a standard gastroscope inserted into the distal esophagus. This suspension of small molecular size dye particles is rapidly taken up by the submucosal lymphatic efferents and transported to the first echelon draining lymph nodes which are then detectable by their blue discoloration.
After a few minutes, the endoscope is withdrawn proximally to this injection site and a mucosal incision made 15cm from the EGJ to allow creation of a submucosal tunnel using a biliary soft tipped dilatation balloon. This along with the pressure of endoscopic CO2 insufflation allows a space to be formed within the esophageal wall. A second staggered incision then allows exit of the endoscope into the mediastinum proper. Once in this anatomic space, a careful search is performed for blue discolored lymph nodes whereupon standard endoscopic dissection instruments allows selective lymphadenectomy to be performed and the salient nodes withdrawn to the exterior via to esophagotomy. The small diameter of the scope allows for easy retroflection providing good visualization even of the proximal esophagus. The last step is mucosal clip closure to reinforce the mucosal flap seal. The retrieved nodes were MRI scanned to confirm the presence of gadolinium in the dyed nodes.
In the second animal the mapping was performed as described above but instead of retrieving only the sentinel nodes an en bloc esophagogastrectomy was performed to assess the sentinel nodes basin distribution at MRI.
Results: The operative technique proved readily feasible in all its aspects with blue sentinel nodes being found around the distal esophagus. The gadolinium combined with methylene blue was found in the first draining nodes in both animals.
Conclusions: MRI imaging may provide a new tool for sentinel node basin identification, and if proved sufficiently reliable, may represent a step further towards a solely endoscopic diagnosis and resection of the primary tumor.
Heller myotomy and intraluminal fundoplication: a NOTES technique
Background and study aims: It is generally accepted that the most effective method of treating achalasia is a surgical myotomy. Nevertheless, if a myotomy alone is performed, reflux may occur in up to 50% of patients. This video demonstrates a transoral incisionless stepwise approach to both esophageal Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication.
Materials and methods: The first step in this experiment consisted in creating the esophageal myotomy. Under general anesthesia, with the pig supine, endoscopy was performed to assess the location of the EGJ. The mucosa on the right postero-lateral esophageal wall was cut with the needle-knife 15cm above the LES. The initial incision was dilated with blunt dissection and the scope eased into the submucosal space. A submucosal tunnel was created with the assistance of CO2 and blunt dissection and extended distally toward the LES. Once the GEJ was clearly identified, the muscular layer was incised in a distal-to-proximal fashion using the IT knife. The scope was then withdrawn back into the lumen and the mucosal flap sealed by the application of endoscopic clips. The adequacy of endoscopic myotomy was evaluated assessing manometric lower esophageal sphincter (LES) profile and postoperative LES pressure fall and evaluated by comparing the EGJ diameter and volume profile before, after and during the division of the esophageal muscular fibers using the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe "endoflip”. The second step of the treatment consisted in building a transoral incisionless fundoplication. Four weeks later, a gastroesophageal valve was created endoscopically using the EsophyX device (EsophyX™, EndoGastric Solutions).
Results: Both Heller myotomy and subsequent endoscopic fundoplication were successfully accomplished with an operative time of 45 min and 20 min respectively. No injury to the esophagus or breach of the esophageal mucosa occurred.
Conclusions: A stepwise transoral incisionless approach to esophageal Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication is feasible in the porcine model.
S Perretta, P Allemann, B Dallemagne, A Lobontiu, D Coumaros, J Marescaux
Surgical intervention
9 years ago
471 views
7 likes
0 comments
04:53
Heller myotomy and intraluminal fundoplication: a NOTES technique
Background and study aims: It is generally accepted that the most effective method of treating achalasia is a surgical myotomy. Nevertheless, if a myotomy alone is performed, reflux may occur in up to 50% of patients. This video demonstrates a transoral incisionless stepwise approach to both esophageal Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication.
Materials and methods: The first step in this experiment consisted in creating the esophageal myotomy. Under general anesthesia, with the pig supine, endoscopy was performed to assess the location of the EGJ. The mucosa on the right postero-lateral esophageal wall was cut with the needle-knife 15cm above the LES. The initial incision was dilated with blunt dissection and the scope eased into the submucosal space. A submucosal tunnel was created with the assistance of CO2 and blunt dissection and extended distally toward the LES. Once the GEJ was clearly identified, the muscular layer was incised in a distal-to-proximal fashion using the IT knife. The scope was then withdrawn back into the lumen and the mucosal flap sealed by the application of endoscopic clips. The adequacy of endoscopic myotomy was evaluated assessing manometric lower esophageal sphincter (LES) profile and postoperative LES pressure fall and evaluated by comparing the EGJ diameter and volume profile before, after and during the division of the esophageal muscular fibers using the Functional Lumen Imaging Probe "endoflip”. The second step of the treatment consisted in building a transoral incisionless fundoplication. Four weeks later, a gastroesophageal valve was created endoscopically using the EsophyX device (EsophyX™, EndoGastric Solutions).
Results: Both Heller myotomy and subsequent endoscopic fundoplication were successfully accomplished with an operative time of 45 min and 20 min respectively. No injury to the esophagus or breach of the esophageal mucosa occurred.
Conclusions: A stepwise transoral incisionless approach to esophageal Heller myotomy and partial fundoplication is feasible in the porcine model.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the colon and its mesentery (including virtual sentinel node biopsy) by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of 2–3mm slicing in opaque samples and so provides real-time cross-sectional images from the specimen. OCT can also achieve resolutions approaching that of conventional histology (c. 2–5μm) as it employs very short wave near-infrared light with precise interferometric detection. Although now mainly used in ophthalmology, OCT has already been found to have clinical applications in dermatology, cardiology, neurology, gynecology and gastroenterology. Dr. Ronan Cahill have deployed a commercially available probe (NIRIS™, Imulax Corporation, Cleveland OH, USA) via the working channel of a gastroscope used as a N.O.T.E.S. peritoneoscope in an experimental model. By this means, high-resolution real-time images mesenteric sentinel nodes have been obtained. Placing such a probe on the surface of the node should provide examination of the tissue to a depth of 2mm. In this video, we show the application of this technique in an experimental model.
R Cahill, M Asakuma, J Trunzo, SJ Schomisch, J Leroy, B Dallemagne, J Marescaux, J Marks
Surgical intervention
9 years ago
182 views
2 likes
0 comments
07:42
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the colon and its mesentery (including virtual sentinel node biopsy) by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of 2–3mm slicing in opaque samples and so provides real-time cross-sectional images from the specimen. OCT can also achieve resolutions approaching that of conventional histology (c. 2–5μm) as it employs very short wave near-infrared light with precise interferometric detection. Although now mainly used in ophthalmology, OCT has already been found to have clinical applications in dermatology, cardiology, neurology, gynecology and gastroenterology. Dr. Ronan Cahill have deployed a commercially available probe (NIRIS™, Imulax Corporation, Cleveland OH, USA) via the working channel of a gastroscope used as a N.O.T.E.S. peritoneoscope in an experimental model. By this means, high-resolution real-time images mesenteric sentinel nodes have been obtained. Placing such a probe on the surface of the node should provide examination of the tissue to a depth of 2mm. In this video, we show the application of this technique in an experimental model.