WebSurg is a virtual university created by surgeons for surgeons. It is an extensive source of knowledge in minimally invasive surgery. It is free and accessible to all. WebSurg promotes technological advances in the field of minimally invasive surgery, in all surgical fields, i.e. general and digestive surgery, urology, gynecology, pediatric surgery, endoscopic surgery, skull base surgery, arthroscopy and upper limb surgery. Define your educational objectives and watch the videos which correspond to your specialty.
How toFind all the tips and tricks from our experts.
WebinarJoin our IRCAD webinars virtually, make the most of our live online conference broadcasts, and chat online with our experts.
WeBsurg allows you to improve your surgical skills but also to share your knowledge with the largest community of surgeons worldwide. Submit the video of your surgical procedure on our website and become part of our international Faculty.
Idiopathic megaesophagus (achalasia) is an esophageal primary motor irregularity. It is characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis, together with incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter after swallowing.
Differential diagnosis must be made between Chagas disease and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence rate ranges from 0.5 to 1 per 100,000 persons-years of study. Although there are several theories, the etiology remains unknown.
The first clinical description was made by Sir Thomas Wills (1672). He used to treat the disease via dilation with a sponge attached to a whalebone. Arthur Hertz was the first to name the disease “achalasia”. Ernest Heller performed the first successful esophagectomy in 1913. Zaaijer was the first to describe the anterior myotomy in 1923.
Other therapeutic procedures include botulinum toxin injection into the lower esophageal sphincter. It has transient effects and patients can develop tolerance to the injections. Another option is endoscopic hydropneumatic dilation, which should be fluoroscopically-guided. When it fails, the efficacy of other therapeutic options decreases. The most serious complication is esophageal perforation.
The diagnostic criteria are based on endoscopic findings. Endoscopy reveals there are food remains as well as esophageal dilation, and decreased motility. X-ray exams show esophageal dilation and narrowing of the lower esophageal sphincter. Manometric findings show decreased esophageal motility, increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter.
The patient was operated on. Since there was no hiatal hernia, laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication was chosen, based on its efficacy in preventing reflux, as well as in keeping the myotomy free of a wrap.