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Bronchoscopy for thoracic surgeons
The idea of this lecture originated from the fact that there is very little teaching material which described bronchoscopy as practiced by the thoracic surgeon. Chest physicians (pulmonologists) perform flexible bronchoscopy on a sedated patient, and they get up-side-down views to that obtained by the surgeons. Bronchoscopy at our department is performed under general anaesthesia, usually in the anaesthetic room just before the operation. We introduce a rigid bronchoscope first, and then a flexible fibre optic 5mm bronchoscope through the rigid scope into the trachea. This arrangement enables precise diagnosis due to excellent vision, with the ability to transform the procedure into a therapeutic session, for example, to take large biopsies, and decide to laser a lesion or to put in a central airway stent. Controlled breathing makes it safer to control significant bleeding during the procedure, and it is understandable that chest physicians shy away from biopsying carcinoid tumours.
The video is divided into 6 chapters. Chapter one deals with the identification of the bronchopulmonary segments and a bit of history about the two systems of nomenclature. It describes in a simplified way the effects of the heart growing in the left chest and the results of fusion, rotation and delayed branching of bronchi. Chapter 2 deals with normal bronchoscopy and anatomy of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi. Chapter 3 deals with abnormalities of the upper airways and trachea. Chapter 4 deals with abnormalities of the right bronchial tree, and chapter 5 deals with abnormalities of the left bronchial tree. The emphasis is on surgical pathology, assessment of airway for resection and decision-making. The viewer is encouraged to take the test on chapter 6 to bolster his/her knowledge of the anatomy of the airways.

1. Objectives:
a. To identify the bronchopulmonary segments in a logical and easy way to recall.
b. To understand the embryological changes resulting from heart growing into left chest.
c. To state what the operator should look for, what is normal and what is abnormal.
d. To help decision-making at operation and in the perioperative period.

2. For whom is this video made:
a. Consultants and trainees in the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery, including paediatric thoracic surgeons.
b. Thoracic and general anaesthetists who are involved with single lung ventilation.
c. Chest physicians who perform bronchoscopy, to understand views and capabilities of flexible over rigid bronchoscopy, and to have a gist of what goes on the mind of a thoracic surgeon when performing bronchoscopy.
d. Intensivists who might perform bronchoscopy via an endotracheal tube for a ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU).
e. Medical students interested in the detailed anatomy of the central airways.

3. What this video is not intended to do:
a. This is not a compendium of abnormalities and pathologies revealed by bronchoscopy.
K Amer
Lecture
3 years ago
1042 views
42 likes
0 comments
59:32
Bronchoscopy for thoracic surgeons
The idea of this lecture originated from the fact that there is very little teaching material which described bronchoscopy as practiced by the thoracic surgeon. Chest physicians (pulmonologists) perform flexible bronchoscopy on a sedated patient, and they get up-side-down views to that obtained by the surgeons. Bronchoscopy at our department is performed under general anaesthesia, usually in the anaesthetic room just before the operation. We introduce a rigid bronchoscope first, and then a flexible fibre optic 5mm bronchoscope through the rigid scope into the trachea. This arrangement enables precise diagnosis due to excellent vision, with the ability to transform the procedure into a therapeutic session, for example, to take large biopsies, and decide to laser a lesion or to put in a central airway stent. Controlled breathing makes it safer to control significant bleeding during the procedure, and it is understandable that chest physicians shy away from biopsying carcinoid tumours.
The video is divided into 6 chapters. Chapter one deals with the identification of the bronchopulmonary segments and a bit of history about the two systems of nomenclature. It describes in a simplified way the effects of the heart growing in the left chest and the results of fusion, rotation and delayed branching of bronchi. Chapter 2 deals with normal bronchoscopy and anatomy of trachea, main bronchi, and segmental bronchi. Chapter 3 deals with abnormalities of the upper airways and trachea. Chapter 4 deals with abnormalities of the right bronchial tree, and chapter 5 deals with abnormalities of the left bronchial tree. The emphasis is on surgical pathology, assessment of airway for resection and decision-making. The viewer is encouraged to take the test on chapter 6 to bolster his/her knowledge of the anatomy of the airways.

1. Objectives:
a. To identify the bronchopulmonary segments in a logical and easy way to recall.
b. To understand the embryological changes resulting from heart growing into left chest.
c. To state what the operator should look for, what is normal and what is abnormal.
d. To help decision-making at operation and in the perioperative period.

2. For whom is this video made:
a. Consultants and trainees in the specialty of cardiothoracic surgery, including paediatric thoracic surgeons.
b. Thoracic and general anaesthetists who are involved with single lung ventilation.
c. Chest physicians who perform bronchoscopy, to understand views and capabilities of flexible over rigid bronchoscopy, and to have a gist of what goes on the mind of a thoracic surgeon when performing bronchoscopy.
d. Intensivists who might perform bronchoscopy via an endotracheal tube for a ventilated patient in the intensive care unit (ICU).
e. Medical students interested in the detailed anatomy of the central airways.

3. What this video is not intended to do:
a. This is not a compendium of abnormalities and pathologies revealed by bronchoscopy.
Full endoscopic robot-assisted basal segmentectomy for bronchiectasis
Objective
Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis is often proposed in complicated situations [1]. The development of minimally invasive surgery should allow us to propose a surgical curative treatment with preventative purposes. In this video, we describe a lung-sparing surgery using a full endoscopic robotic segmentectomy as described by Dylewsky [2] to deal with localized bronchiectasis.
Case presentation
This is the case of a 40-year-old man with bronchiectasis, colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with antibiotic resistance. The patient suffered from recurrent infections. Bronchiectasis is localized in the left basal segments on CT-scan. Basal segmentectomy was decided upon using a robot-assisted procedure. This kind of patient is usually treated medically with iterative antibiotherapy until a new complication occurs.
Results
There was no postoperative complication and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The patient resumed work after one month without any complaint.
Conclusion
When using a precise resection, basal segmentectomy seems to be feasible using a robot-assisted procedure, without increasing perioperative morbidity. This procedure should be proposed as a preventative surgery as it is a relatively new approach for benign or infectious lung disease.
Bibliographic references
1. Agasthian T. Results of surgery for bronchiectasis and pulmonary abscesses. Thorac Surg Clin. 2012;22:333-44.
2. Dylewski MR, Ohaeto AC, Pereira JF. Pulmonary resection using a total endoscopic robotic video-assisted approach. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;23:36-42.
JM Baste, P Rinieri, A Sebestyen
Surgical intervention
5 years ago
280 views
4 likes
0 comments
07:42
Full endoscopic robot-assisted basal segmentectomy for bronchiectasis
Objective
Surgical treatment of bronchiectasis is often proposed in complicated situations [1]. The development of minimally invasive surgery should allow us to propose a surgical curative treatment with preventative purposes. In this video, we describe a lung-sparing surgery using a full endoscopic robotic segmentectomy as described by Dylewsky [2] to deal with localized bronchiectasis.
Case presentation
This is the case of a 40-year-old man with bronchiectasis, colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with antibiotic resistance. The patient suffered from recurrent infections. Bronchiectasis is localized in the left basal segments on CT-scan. Basal segmentectomy was decided upon using a robot-assisted procedure. This kind of patient is usually treated medically with iterative antibiotherapy until a new complication occurs.
Results
There was no postoperative complication and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The patient resumed work after one month without any complaint.
Conclusion
When using a precise resection, basal segmentectomy seems to be feasible using a robot-assisted procedure, without increasing perioperative morbidity. This procedure should be proposed as a preventative surgery as it is a relatively new approach for benign or infectious lung disease.
Bibliographic references
1. Agasthian T. Results of surgery for bronchiectasis and pulmonary abscesses. Thorac Surg Clin. 2012;22:333-44.
2. Dylewski MR, Ohaeto AC, Pereira JF. Pulmonary resection using a total endoscopic robotic video-assisted approach. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;23:36-42.
Technique for endoscopic resection of obstructive endobronchial malignancy
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. Malignant obstruction of major airways may require endoscopic resection for rapid palliation of dyspnea and obstructive pneumonitis.
Patients should be evaluated with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest to assess the anatomy of the obstruction and demonstrate patent airway distally. This criterion is critical for optimal selection.
Resection is carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia. It is important to emphasize that close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams is essential at all times, as they are sharing responsibility for the airway. We use rigid bronchoscopy for piecemeal extraction of the lesion. Since moderate bleeding may be encountered, the clinician should be familiar with hemostatic manoeuvres including dabbing raw bronchial surfaces using the rigid bronchoscope, the use of epinephrine soaked pledgets, and irrigation using epinephrine solution. Hemostasis may also be accomplished using energy sources delivered through a flexible bronchoscope, including electrocautery, argon beam, and Nd:YAG laser. All energy sources should be used with caution within the airway to minimize the risk of complications.
Depending on the individual patient, endobronchial resection may be combined with airway stenting and/or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. In carefully selected patients, this will result in adequate palliation of symptoms.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Suzanne Desbiens RN for their continued support.
G Rakovich
Surgical intervention
6 years ago
846 views
8 likes
0 comments
04:07
Technique for endoscopic resection of obstructive endobronchial malignancy
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. Malignant obstruction of major airways may require endoscopic resection for rapid palliation of dyspnea and obstructive pneumonitis.
Patients should be evaluated with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest to assess the anatomy of the obstruction and demonstrate patent airway distally. This criterion is critical for optimal selection.
Resection is carried out in the operating room under general anesthesia. It is important to emphasize that close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams is essential at all times, as they are sharing responsibility for the airway. We use rigid bronchoscopy for piecemeal extraction of the lesion. Since moderate bleeding may be encountered, the clinician should be familiar with hemostatic manoeuvres including dabbing raw bronchial surfaces using the rigid bronchoscope, the use of epinephrine soaked pledgets, and irrigation using epinephrine solution. Hemostasis may also be accomplished using energy sources delivered through a flexible bronchoscope, including electrocautery, argon beam, and Nd:YAG laser. All energy sources should be used with caution within the airway to minimize the risk of complications.
Depending on the individual patient, endobronchial resection may be combined with airway stenting and/or postoperative chemoradiotherapy. In carefully selected patients, this will result in adequate palliation of symptoms.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Suzanne Desbiens RN for their continued support.
Endoscopic resection of an endobronchial hamartoma
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. However, benign lesions, although rare, may also occur.
Hamartoma is amongst the most frequent benign endobronchial tumors. In many cases, these tumors are amenable to endoscopic treatment (either resection or laser ablation), thus sparing the patient the potential morbidity of a thoracotomy and bronchial or parenchymal resection.
We present a case of bronchoscopic resection of a hamartoma obstructing the left lower lobe bronchus in a 58-year-old patient who had presented with cough and post-obstructive pneumonia.
Key aspects of the procedure include:
- Optimal pre-operative evaluation with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest.
- Close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams who are sharing responsibility for the airway.
- Careful use of energy sources within the airway.
- Adequate precautions in case of an unexpected major endobronchial bleed.
The prognosis of completely resected benign tumors is excellent.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Mélodie Leclerc RN for their continued support.
G Rakovich, D Ouellette, G Beauchamp
Surgical intervention
7 years ago
1410 views
12 likes
0 comments
03:33
Endoscopic resection of an endobronchial hamartoma
Invasion of the tracheo-bronchial tree by a malignant pulmonary lesion is the most frequent cause of bronchial obstruction in the adult. However, benign lesions, although rare, may also occur.
Hamartoma is amongst the most frequent benign endobronchial tumors. In many cases, these tumors are amenable to endoscopic treatment (either resection or laser ablation), thus sparing the patient the potential morbidity of a thoracotomy and bronchial or parenchymal resection.
We present a case of bronchoscopic resection of a hamartoma obstructing the left lower lobe bronchus in a 58-year-old patient who had presented with cough and post-obstructive pneumonia.
Key aspects of the procedure include:
- Optimal pre-operative evaluation with flexible bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the chest.
- Close collaboration between the surgical and anesthesia teams who are sharing responsibility for the airway.
- Careful use of energy sources within the airway.
- Adequate precautions in case of an unexpected major endobronchial bleed.
The prognosis of completely resected benign tumors is excellent.
Acknowledgment: we would like to thank Nathalie Leroux RN and Mélodie Leclerc RN for their continued support.
VATS right upper lobectomy with en bloc chest wall resection
The optimal treatment of lung cancer invading the chest wall is complete surgical resection via lobectomy and en bloc chest wall resection, which has a 40 to 50% 5-year survival when there is no lymph node involvement.
VATS lobectomy is currently preferred as a standard approach in selected cases for pulmonary resections, especially for early stage non-small cell lung cancer with acceptable safety, successful surgical outcomes, and oncological efficacy. With recent advances in both equipment and technique, VATS is being applied to more complex conditions by some experienced thoracic surgeons.
We present the case of a 68-year-old man with pulmonary squamous cells carcinoma of the right upper lobe invading chest wall on the level of posterolateral part of the 3rd and 4th ribs. Right upper lobectomy with en bloc chest wall resection was finally performed by VATS.
M Gonzalez, JY Perentes, T Krueger
Surgical intervention
3 years ago
1185 views
41 likes
0 comments
12:29
VATS right upper lobectomy with en bloc chest wall resection
The optimal treatment of lung cancer invading the chest wall is complete surgical resection via lobectomy and en bloc chest wall resection, which has a 40 to 50% 5-year survival when there is no lymph node involvement.
VATS lobectomy is currently preferred as a standard approach in selected cases for pulmonary resections, especially for early stage non-small cell lung cancer with acceptable safety, successful surgical outcomes, and oncological efficacy. With recent advances in both equipment and technique, VATS is being applied to more complex conditions by some experienced thoracic surgeons.
We present the case of a 68-year-old man with pulmonary squamous cells carcinoma of the right upper lobe invading chest wall on the level of posterolateral part of the 3rd and 4th ribs. Right upper lobectomy with en bloc chest wall resection was finally performed by VATS.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): Right middle lobectomy and complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy
The surgical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involves anatomical lung resection and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early NSCLC is actually preferred over a thoracotomy in experienced centers.
Potential advantages described of VATS lobectomy are decreased postoperative pain, less blood loss, shortened hospital length of stay, fewer overall complications, diminished immunologic suppression, as well as an increased ability to deliver adjuvant therapy. Oncological results are at least equivalent as thoracotomy in terms of long-term recurrence and survival rates.
We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with clinical cT2 cN0 lung adenocarcinoma of the middle lobe. The patient underwent right middle lobectomy with complete mediastinal lymph node dissection using an anterior three-port thoracoscopic approach.
M Gonzalez, T Krueger, JY Perentes
Surgical intervention
4 years ago
1762 views
41 likes
0 comments
10:42
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS): Right middle lobectomy and complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy
The surgical management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involves anatomical lung resection and systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early NSCLC is actually preferred over a thoracotomy in experienced centers.
Potential advantages described of VATS lobectomy are decreased postoperative pain, less blood loss, shortened hospital length of stay, fewer overall complications, diminished immunologic suppression, as well as an increased ability to deliver adjuvant therapy. Oncological results are at least equivalent as thoracotomy in terms of long-term recurrence and survival rates.
We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with clinical cT2 cN0 lung adenocarcinoma of the middle lobe. The patient underwent right middle lobectomy with complete mediastinal lymph node dissection using an anterior three-port thoracoscopic approach.
Repair of distal esophageal perforation (Boerhaave’s syndrome) by left thoracoscopy with the patient in prone position
Background: Boerhaave’s syndrome is an emergency disease related to a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Surgical treatment is usually performed by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy with the patient in lateral position. The authors report a patient with a distal esophageal perforation treated by left thoracoscopy in prone position.

Clinical case: A 44-year-old man was admitted to our emergency room following a 14-hour episode of vomiting and hematemesis. Preoperative work-up evidenced a perforation of the distal esophagus on the left side, associated with a pneumomediastinum. The patient underwent a left thoracoscopy in a prone position, after induction of general anesthesia using a Carlens-type double lumen tube. Three trocars of 5mm, 10mm, and 5mm, were placed in the 5th, 7th, and 10th intercostal spaces respectively. Exploration of the chest cavity revealed the presence of free liquid and fibrin, with no evidence of esophageal perforation. However, the esophageal perforation was demonstrated after dissection of the mediastinal pleura, and appeared to be 2cm in length. A nasogastric tube was advanced into the stomach under visual control, and an additional trocarless grasper was placed in the 10th intercostal space to improve exposure. The esophagus perforation was closed using 2/0 silk interrupted sutures, with a reinforcement patch using the inferior pulmonary ligament. The cavity was cleansed and the 5mm trocar was replaced with a chest tube in the 10th intercostal space, with its tip close to the suture.

Results: Operative time was 90 minutes, and no significant operative bleeding was noted. The patient was admitted to hospital in the Intensive Care Unit and extubated after 24 hours. A chest tube was placed in the right chest after 10 days for a pleural effusion, and a pericardial drain was placed after 16 days for pericardial tamponade. A gastrograffin swallow test on postoperative day 10 revealed a residual sinus at the site of the perforation. Another gastrograffin swallow test on postoperative day 20 was negative for leakage. The patient was discharged after 32 days.

Conclusions: Esophageal perforation can be treated by thoracoscopy with the patient placed in a prone position as access is facilitated by the effect of gravity on the cardiopulmonary organs. The success of the primary suture depends on the timing between the incident and the treatment; however, morbidity remains high.
G Dapri, S Carandina, L Gerard, GB Cadière
Surgical intervention
6 years ago
3018 views
58 likes
0 comments
07:11
Repair of distal esophageal perforation (Boerhaave’s syndrome) by left thoracoscopy with the patient in prone position
Background: Boerhaave’s syndrome is an emergency disease related to a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Surgical treatment is usually performed by thoracotomy or thoracoscopy with the patient in lateral position. The authors report a patient with a distal esophageal perforation treated by left thoracoscopy in prone position.

Clinical case: A 44-year-old man was admitted to our emergency room following a 14-hour episode of vomiting and hematemesis. Preoperative work-up evidenced a perforation of the distal esophagus on the left side, associated with a pneumomediastinum. The patient underwent a left thoracoscopy in a prone position, after induction of general anesthesia using a Carlens-type double lumen tube. Three trocars of 5mm, 10mm, and 5mm, were placed in the 5th, 7th, and 10th intercostal spaces respectively. Exploration of the chest cavity revealed the presence of free liquid and fibrin, with no evidence of esophageal perforation. However, the esophageal perforation was demonstrated after dissection of the mediastinal pleura, and appeared to be 2cm in length. A nasogastric tube was advanced into the stomach under visual control, and an additional trocarless grasper was placed in the 10th intercostal space to improve exposure. The esophagus perforation was closed using 2/0 silk interrupted sutures, with a reinforcement patch using the inferior pulmonary ligament. The cavity was cleansed and the 5mm trocar was replaced with a chest tube in the 10th intercostal space, with its tip close to the suture.

Results: Operative time was 90 minutes, and no significant operative bleeding was noted. The patient was admitted to hospital in the Intensive Care Unit and extubated after 24 hours. A chest tube was placed in the right chest after 10 days for a pleural effusion, and a pericardial drain was placed after 16 days for pericardial tamponade. A gastrograffin swallow test on postoperative day 10 revealed a residual sinus at the site of the perforation. Another gastrograffin swallow test on postoperative day 20 was negative for leakage. The patient was discharged after 32 days.

Conclusions: Esophageal perforation can be treated by thoracoscopy with the patient placed in a prone position as access is facilitated by the effect of gravity on the cardiopulmonary organs. The success of the primary suture depends on the timing between the incident and the treatment; however, morbidity remains high.
Endoscopic mediastinal lymph node dissection for stage I lung carcinoma
In this video, we will focus on mediastinal lymph node dissection as defined by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group, i.e.: for right-sided tumors: removal of all lymphatic tissue bounded by the right upper bronchus, the right subclavian artery, the superior vena cava and the trachea (stations 2R and 4R); for left-sided tumors: removal of all lymphatic tissue bounded by the phrenic nerve, the vagus nerve and the top of the aortic arch (stations 5 and 6); and for both sides, removal of lymph nodes from stations 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.
A perfect vision is necessary during mediastinal lymph node dissection. An oblique viewing 30 degree scope or a deflectable thoracoscope is almost essential to avoid the drawbacks linked to tangential vision, as it frequently occurs with a low inserted scope.
During open or video-assisted lymphadenectomy, it is usual to control small vessels by a combination of clipping and transection. This is time-consuming and it can be replaced by either bipolar cautery or ultrasonic shears or a vessel-sealing device, which both allow coagulating and transecting with a single tool.

This technique is presented in the book :
D. Gossot Atlas of endoscopic major pulmonary resections
(2010) Springer-Verlag France
www.springer.com/978-2-287-99776-1
D Gossot
Surgical intervention
9 years ago
3139 views
17 likes
0 comments
09:36
Endoscopic mediastinal lymph node dissection for stage I lung carcinoma
In this video, we will focus on mediastinal lymph node dissection as defined by the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group, i.e.: for right-sided tumors: removal of all lymphatic tissue bounded by the right upper bronchus, the right subclavian artery, the superior vena cava and the trachea (stations 2R and 4R); for left-sided tumors: removal of all lymphatic tissue bounded by the phrenic nerve, the vagus nerve and the top of the aortic arch (stations 5 and 6); and for both sides, removal of lymph nodes from stations 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11.
A perfect vision is necessary during mediastinal lymph node dissection. An oblique viewing 30 degree scope or a deflectable thoracoscope is almost essential to avoid the drawbacks linked to tangential vision, as it frequently occurs with a low inserted scope.
During open or video-assisted lymphadenectomy, it is usual to control small vessels by a combination of clipping and transection. This is time-consuming and it can be replaced by either bipolar cautery or ultrasonic shears or a vessel-sealing device, which both allow coagulating and transecting with a single tool.

This technique is presented in the book :
D. Gossot Atlas of endoscopic major pulmonary resections
(2010) Springer-Verlag France
www.springer.com/978-2-287-99776-1
Minimally invasive esophagectomy in a patient in a prone position
This video demonstrates a total esophagectomy for a cancer of distal esophagus. The surgeon starts with right thoracoscopy with the patient in a prone position. The esophagus and adjoining lymphatics are mobilized and separated from the adjoining structures. The azygos vein is divided. Once full mobilization of the thoracic esophagus is achieved, a chest tube is inserted and the trocars are removed and the patient is put in a supine position. The surgeon now performs laparoscopic dissection of the left gastric vessels and lymphatics. A gastric tube is created and duodenum is kocherized. After full mobilization of the gastroesophageal junction and the tumor at the hiatus, a cervicotomy is carried out and the esophagus is pulled out through the cervical incision. The esophagus is resected and a side-to-side stapled anastomosis is made between the cervical esophagus and the gastric tube.
GB Cadière, J Himpens
Surgical intervention
13 years ago
512 views
24 likes
0 comments
11:57
Minimally invasive esophagectomy in a patient in a prone position
This video demonstrates a total esophagectomy for a cancer of distal esophagus. The surgeon starts with right thoracoscopy with the patient in a prone position. The esophagus and adjoining lymphatics are mobilized and separated from the adjoining structures. The azygos vein is divided. Once full mobilization of the thoracic esophagus is achieved, a chest tube is inserted and the trocars are removed and the patient is put in a supine position. The surgeon now performs laparoscopic dissection of the left gastric vessels and lymphatics. A gastric tube is created and duodenum is kocherized. After full mobilization of the gastroesophageal junction and the tumor at the hiatus, a cervicotomy is carried out and the esophagus is pulled out through the cervical incision. The esophagus is resected and a side-to-side stapled anastomosis is made between the cervical esophagus and the gastric tube.